Posts Tagged ‘hornets’

Parashah 46: ‘Ekev (Because)

Deuteronomy 7:12-11:25

“Because you are listening to these rulings, keeping and obeying them, Adonai your God will keep with you the covenant and mercy that he swore to your ancestors” (Deuteronomy 7:12).

Covenant of Mercy

The covenant of mercy is the eighth covenant given in Torah, a covenant Adonai made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The word for ‘mercy’ in Hebrew is rachum and means ‘compassionate.’ Listening to Adonai’s rulings, keeping and obeying His mitzvot brings forth His compassionate merciful covenant.

Adonai’s covenant of mercy will bless Isra’el more than any other nation. He will love them and increase their numbers, blessing the fruit of their bodies. He will bless their grain, wine, olive oil, cattle, and sheep.

All illness will be kept from them and be put on their enemies. They will have victory over the nations Adonai brings to them, and He will show them no pity. They are to burn the carved statues of foreign gods so they don’t become ensnared by idolatrous worship. They are not to become greedy for silver and gold or take it with them as they will be consumed by it.

They are not to be afraid of the vastness of the enemy armies, but remember what ‘I Am’ did with signs and wonders to Pharaoh and all of Egypt, and the strong hand and outstretched arm through which He delivered them. He will send the hornet among their enemies until those who are left will perish because Adonai is a fearsome Elohim. They will expel the nations of the Land, little by little, so wild animals do not become too numerous. Kings will be handed over to them, and Isra’el will wipe out the names of their enemies from under heaven.

“Think deeply about it: Adonai was disciplining you, just as a man disciplines his child”
(Deuteronomy 8:5).

They are to take care to obey all the commands Adonai gave them remembering how for 40 years He tested them in the desert, humbling them to know what was in their heart (Deuteronomy 8:2). For 40 years they ate manna so they would understand “man does not live on bread alone, but on every thing that comes from the mouth of Adonai” (Deuteronomy 8:4). For 40 years their clothes didn’t grow old, their shoes didn’t wear out, nor did their feet swell up from the days and months of traveling.

Adonai disciplined them to draw their hearts towards Him and prepare them to possess ‘the land flowing with milk and honey.’ He warns them not to become prideful and forget who gives the power to get wealth, to build fine houses, and eat until they are satisfied. If they forget the ‘I am,’ they will perish like the nations He causes to perish in front of them (Deuteronomy 8:18).

“For Adonai corrects those he loves like a father who delights in his son” (Proverbs 3:12).

Hebrew Word Pictures
Humble or anav – ענו – ayin, nun, vav
– understand life binding

Test or nasah – נסה – nun, samech, hey
– life support revealed

More Hornets

The hornet was mentioned in Exodus, now in Deuteronomy, and will be again in Joshua 24:12. In each account, the hornet will drive away Isra’el’s enemies. The Hebrew word for ‘hornet’ is tzirah and means ‘stinging.’ The hornet is a medium-sized insect that has a terrible sting. It flies fast and fights hard making it quite the opponent coming face to face with a swarm.

Hornets may be a metaphor for ‘terror of Elohim’ or there may actually have been hornets. Adonai has a combative character especially against the wicked or lawless.   He is aggressive, and when filled with righteous anger or jealousy, He will defend His Name and His people. The hornet is going to be evidence of ‘I Am’ in the conquest of Canaan. Though the Israelites would be using their swords, Adonai Tz’vaot would fight the battle (2 Chronicles 20:15). Through His direct intervention, Isra’el would have the victory over nations. The hornet would put the fear of Adonai into the hearts of their enemies.  With each conquest, the nations would see Adonai’s power and fear Him.

“Listen, Isra’el! You are to cross the Yarden today, to go in and dispossess nations greater and stronger than you, great cities fortified up to the sky; a people great and tall, the ‘Anakim, whom you know about and of whom you have heard it said, ‘Who can stand before the descendants of ‘Anak?’Therefore understand today that Adonai your God will himself cross ahead of you as a devouring fire; he will destroy them and bring them down before you. Thus will you drive them out and cause them to perish quickly, as Adonai has said to you” (Deuteronomy 9:1-3).

“Wherever the sole of your foot steps will be yours; your territory will extend from the desert to the Lebanon and from the River, the Euphrates River, to the Western Sea” (Deuteronomy 11:24).

Adonai will cross the Jordan ahead of the Israelites as a devouring fire and will destroy their enemies. This is not because of Isra’el’s righteousness, but because of the wickedness of the nations.  ‘I Am’ cannot allow wickedness to continue and therefore, through Isra’el, He judges “a people great and tall” (Deuteronomy 9:2).

The history lesson continues …

“Then Adonai gave me [Moshe] the two stone tablets inscribed by the finger of God; and on them was written every word Adonai had said to you from the fire on the mountain the day of the assembly. Yes, after forty days and nights Adonai gave me the two stone tablets, the tablets of the covenant” (Deuteronomy 9:10-11). 

For 40 days and nights Moshe stayed on the mountain at Horev receiving the covenant for Isra’el written by Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh’s own hand. Moshe destroyed the first two stone tablets because of the rebellion with the golden calf. He went up the mountain for another 40 days and nights while Adonai inscribed another set of stones with the Ten Words that were kept in the Ark of the Covenant.

“So now, Isra’el, all that Adonai your God asks from you is to fear Adonai your God, follow all his ways, love him and serve Adonai your God with all your heart and all your being; to obey, for your own good, the mitzvot and regulations of Adonai which I am giving you today”
(Deuteronomy 10:12-13).

Hebrew Word Pictures
Love or ahavah – אהבה – alef, hey, bet, heh
– first strength reveals house, behold

Serve or abad – עבד – ayin, bet, dalet
– see family pathway

Heart or lev – לב – lamed, bet
– urges forward the house

“See, the sky, the heaven beyond the sky, the earth and everything on it all belong to Adonai your God. Only Adonai took enough pleasure in your ancestors to love them and choose their descendants after them — yourselves — above all peoples, as he still does today” (Deuteronomy 10:14).

Again, the witness of two for Elohim is the heaven beyond the sky, the earth and everything on it. Everything belongs to the Creator. El Shaddai took pleasure in Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob that He chose their descendants to be His people and they remain so today.

Therefore …

“Therefore, you are to store up these words of mine in your heart and in all your being; tie them on your hand as a sign; put them at the front of a headband around your forehead; teach them carefully to your children, talking about them when you sit at home, when you are traveling on the road, when you lie down and when you get up; and write them on the door-frames of your house and on your gates — so that you and your children will live long on the land Adonai swore to your ancestors that he would give them for as long as there is sky above the earth” (Deuteronomy 11:18-20).

Circumcision of the Heart

“Therefore, circumcise the foreskin of your heart; and don’t be stiff-necked any longer!”
(Deuteronomy 10:16)

The Israelites were commanded to ‘circumcise the foreskin of their heart.’ This is an impossible task for any human being, even for the chosen people. Adonai finds fault with His people and had to ‘renew’ His covenant. The problem wasn’t with His Torah, His mitzvot and regulations, but with the hearts of human beings. There had to be a change, not the removal of His divine law, but a transformation of the heart and how it received His Torah.

“For God does find fault with the people when he says, ‘See! The days are coming,’ says Adonai, ‘when I will establish over the house of Isra’el and over the house of Y’hudah a new [a renewal of the] covenant…. For this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Isra’el after those days,’ says Adonai: ‘I will put my Torah in their minds and write it on their hearts’” (Hebrews 8:8-12).

The prophet Ezekiel explains the Torah will be put in the minds and hearts of Adonai’s people through the Ruach haKodesh. The firstfruits of this promise happened at Shavuot in Jerusalem, its complete fulfillment won’t occur until Yeshua returns (Acts 2). Everyone who wants to be part of the renewed covenant must enter by faith, receive the circumcision of heart and the seal of the Ruach haKodesh. Obedience to Elohim’s instructions will then be written line by line, precept by precept on the new heart. No two people will have the same precepts written on their hearts at the same time which it why it is important to encourage and sharpen one another as ‘iron sharpens iron’ (Proverbs 27:17).

“I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit inside you; I will take the stony heart out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. I will put my Spirit inside you and cause you to live by my laws, respect my rulings and obey them” (Ezekiel 36:26-27).

Selah
What is a b’rit milah? If b’rit means ‘covenant,’ what is a milah? A b’rit milah is the terminology used for ‘circumcision of the flesh,’ but it has a much deeper meaning.

The circumcision of the flesh or the cutting away of the foreskin on a male baby is considered the ‘unveiling’ of the covenant G-d made with Abraham in Genesis 17.  It was part of the firstborn redemption in Exodus 12-13 and was one of the covenants G-d gave to His people, Isra’el (Leviticus 12:3).  Circumcision of the flesh was always to be in unity with the circumcision of the heart, a symbol of faith in the flesh of all males of Isra’el.

The Torah is divided into ‘to do’ and ‘not to do’ commands.  Circumcision is one of the ‘to do’ commandments and is an act of faith and keeping covenant with G-d.  It is connected to the ‘blood covenant’ as circumcision is the act of cutting the flesh.  Symbolically, it is the same as killing an animal to prepare it for sacrifice by the priests.

Yeshua never spoke against circumcision nor did his disciples even though there are many Christian teachers who do.   Satan perverts everything G-d commanded as he’s a liar and murderer since the day of creation, as he tempted Eve in the Garden of Eden with lies.  Yeshua said the same thing of him, ‘he is the father of lies’ (John 8:44).

Circumcision is done by a mohel (special man who does circumcisions).  First, he makes the area numb, not to make the baby suffer in pain, then he cuts off the foreskin with a special sterilized knife.  During the ‘cutting’  he blesses the child:

“Baruch atah Adonai Elohenu melech ha’olam she’tzivnu al hamila, omein.”
‘Blessed are you, Adonai, king of the universe, who commanded the circumcision, amen.’

A b’rit milah  is a holy and a happy event in the Jewish family. Once done it means the child has entered into the covenant with YHA [yod-hey-vav-hey].  In heaven it is also a very happy event since one more neshsma (spirit/soul) entered into the covenant of Isra’el with YHA. 

The Messiah is also in the b’rit milah.  In the Hebrew language milah also means ‘Word.’   Thus, a b’rit milah can also mean ‘Covenant of the Word.’  Who is the Word in the flesh?  Yeshua! (John 1:1, John 1:14)

Christians believe by this verse that Yeshua became the Father, the Creator.  This is not the case in Hebrew understanding. ‘G-d’ in Hebrew is Elohim, and Yeshua is Elohim indeed,  but not the Creator Himself!  Moses was also Elohim to Aaron and the Israelites showing he was given authority by G-d, YHA Elohim, the only Creator, the ultimate Elohim!

When G-d created the world in speech, by the words, ‘Let there be light [or],’ Yeshua was made in the Spirit of YHA Elohim.  On the sixth day, Adam and Eve were also created in light. That was their b’rit milah by YHA Elohim.  Then they sinned and He gave them garments of ‘or’ (leather or skin) to cover their shame which also covered the cut foreskin of Adam.  Removing the foreskin brings a man back as a first step of repentance to YHA.  Of course this has to be done freely and willingly with a heart filled with spirit of true repentance.

Ultimately, a b’rit milah is a circumcision of the flesh and heart through the Word of Elohim who is Yeshua. When Moshe tells the Israelites to ‘circumcise the foreskin of their hearts,’ he is directing them back to the Garden, back to Abraham, back to their faith in the coming ‘seed of woman,’ the Word in the flesh, the blood sacrifice, Yeshua. (Sarit Nachman, Israel)

“For Adonai your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, mighty and awesome God, who has no favorites and accepts no bribes. He secures justice for the orphan and the widow; he loves the foreigner, giving him food and clothing. Therefore you are to love the foreigner, since you were foreigners in the land of Egypt” (Deuteronomy 10:17-19).

Adonai secures justice for the widow and orphan, and He loves the foreigner. Foreigners to the covenant have a place in Adonai’s plan of redemption because of His promise to Abraham that He would bless all nations through his seed.

“You are to fear Adonai your God, serve him, cling to him and swear by his name. He is your praise, and he is your God, who has done for you these great and awesome things, which you have seen with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 10:20-21).

Adonai is to be our praise. In Hebrew the word for ‘praise’ is y’hudah or Judah. Yeshua, our salvation, is from the Tribe of Judah, the brother of the Jewish people. Many people call themselves Israelites, but according to Sha’ul, those who have circumcision of heart and whose praise comes from Adonai are the true Jew and Jewish like their Messiah.

“For the real Jew is not merely Jewish outwardly: true circumcision is not only external and physical. On the contrary, the real Jew is one inwardly; and true circumcision is of the heart, spiritual not literal; so that his praise comes not from other people but from God” (Romans 2:28-29).

The Early and Latter Rains

Adonai is bringing the Israelites into a good land, not like Egypt where they had to irrigate their fields. It is a land with streams and springs that come up from the valleys on the hillsides. It is a land where they will grow wheat and barley, have grapevines, fig trees and pomegranates, olive oil and honey. It is a land where the stones contain iron and they can mine copper. It is the Land that Adonai cares for and His eyes will always be on from the beginning of the year to the end. Obedience to His Torah will bring the rains in the spring and the rains in the fall and the land will soak up the water and produce fruit.

“Be glad, people of Tziyon! rejoice in Adonai your God! For he is giving you the right amount of rain in the fall, he makes the rain come down for you, the fall and spring rains — this is what he does first. Then the floors will be full of grain and the vats overflow with wine and olive oil” (Joel 2:23-24).

The early rains or the spring rains symbolize the spring mo’edim. With the first coming of Messiah Yeshua, the early rains of Pesach, Matzah, and Firstfruits were fulfilled. The Ruach haKodesh was poured out in the early rains on Jewish believers from all over the known world. As they heard the message of salvation in their own language, they returned to their homes as the first missionaries to the world of Yeshua’s life, death and resurrection. They were the firstfruits of the early rains.

“After this, I will pour out my Spirit on all humanity. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions; and also on male and female slaves in those days I will pour out my Spirit. I will show wonders in the sky and on earth — blood, fire and columns of smoke. The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the coming of the great and terrible Day of Adonai. At that time, whoever calls on the name of Adonai will be saved. For in Mount Tziyon and Yerushalayim there will be those who escape, as Adonai has promised; among the survivors will be those whom Adonai has called” (Joel 3:1-5).

The latter rains symbolize the fall moed’im. They will be fulfilled when Yeshua returns as the ‘reality’ in Yom Teruah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot. A second time Adonai will pour out His Ruach haKodesh on the land and the people of Isra’el and there will be a harvest or ‘ingathering’ of souls. They will recognize Yeshua as their Messiah and the fullness of the renewed covenant will become reality in the Millennial reign of King Yeshua.

“When that day comes, I will seek to destroy all nations attacking Yerushalayim; and I will pour out on the house of David and on those living in Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and prayer; and they will look to me, whom they pierced” (Zechariah 12:9-10).

Yeshua and Mercy

“How blessed are those who show mercy! for they will be shown mercy” (Matthew 5:7).

“As they came up to the crowd, a man approached Yeshua, kneeled down in front of him, and said, ‘Sir, have mercy on my son, because he is an epileptic and has such terrible fits that he often falls into the fire or into the water…. Yeshua rebuked the demon, and it came out of the boy, so that from that moment he was healed’” (Matthew 17:14-18).

“Woe to you hypocritical Torah-teachers and P’rushim! You pay your tithes of mint, dill and cumin; but you have neglected the weightier matters of the Torah — justice, mercy, trust. These are the things you should have attended to — without neglecting the others!” (Matthew 23:23)

“As he was getting into the boat, the man who had been demonized begged him to be allowed to go with him. But Yeshua would not permit it. Instead, he said to him, ‘Go home to your people, and tell them how much Adonai in his mercy has done for you.’  He went off and began proclaiming in the Ten Towns how much Yeshua had done for him, and everyone was amazed” (Matthew 5:18-20)

“Yeshua said: ‘A man was going down from Yerushalayim to Yericho [Jericho] when he was attacked by robbers. They stripped him naked and beat him up, then went off, leaving him half dead.  By coincidence, a cohen was going down on that road; but when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.  Likewise a Levi who reached the place and saw him also passed by on the other side. But a man from Shomron [Samaria] who was traveling came upon him; and when he saw him, he was moved with compassion. So he went up to him, put oil and wine on his wounds and bandaged them. Then he set him on his own donkey, brought him to an inn and took care of him. The next day, he took out two days’ wages, gave them to the innkeeper and said, ‘Look after him; and if you spend more than this, I’ll pay you back when I return.’ Of these three, which one seems to you to have become the ‘neighbor’ of the man who fell among robbers?  He answered, ‘The one who showed mercy toward him.’ Yeshua said to him, ‘You go and do as he did’” (Luke 10:30-37).

“But the tax-collector, standing far off, would not even raise his eyes toward heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God! Have mercy on me, sinner that I am!’  I tell you, this man went down to his home right with God rather than the other. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but everyone who humbles himself will be exalted” (Luke 18:13-14).

©2018 Tentstake Ministries Publishing, all rights reserved.  No copying or reproducing of this article without crediting the author or Tentstake Ministries Publishing. For a hard copy of this Torah portion, the weekly readings of the Prophets and New Testament, Study Helps, and springboard for midrash, please purchase Open My Eyes: Wonders of Torah.

Parashah 18: Mishpatim (Rulings)

Exodus 21:1-24:18

“These are the rulings you are to present to them …” (Exodus 21:1).

The Ten Commandments did not complete the instructions of Adonai. He continued to reveal His Torah with His mishpatim or rulings. Mishpat  is a Hebrew noun which means ‘judgment or rights.’ Mishpat deals with the act of sitting as a judge and rendering a verdict so that judicial issues are properly executed.

These rulings give more specifics for how Adonai’s people were to judge cases involving slavery, murder, personal attacks with people or animals, stealing, witchcraft, foreigners, and other gods.  These judgments detail how we are to “love God and our neighbor as ourselves.”

Hebrew Word Pictures
Rulings (Law) or mishpatim – משפטים – mem, shin, peh, tet, yod, mem
– chaos consumed by the mouth, twisting the mighty finished work

Hebrew slaves
The Hebrew word for ‘slave’ comes from the verb avod and means ‘to work.’ The noun ‘slave’ is avodah suggesting ‘hard labor.’ When avod is used for those who work for another in Isra’el, it means ‘to serve.’   With a slight change in a vowel point, avod becomes eved and means ‘servant.’  Servanthood was considered a mark of humility.

Slavery in Isra’el was not like slavery as the world defines. In Isra’el a servant was bought for money, but was not ‘enslaved’ like the Hebrews in Egypt.

A Hebrew servant worked 6 years for his master, but in the seventh year, he was given his freedom. If he began work as a single man, he was to leave single.  If he began work as a married man, his family would leave with him.  If the slave married and had children while working the 6 years, the wife and children remained the master’s possession unless the servant desired to stay with his wife and children.  The master would then take the servant to the doorpost of his home and pierce his ear with an awl. The servant would remain a servant for the rest of his life.

A daughter sold into slavery was not allowed to be set free.  If she marries her master and he decides she no longer pleases him, her freedom may be purchased, though not by a foreigner, as she has already been defiled.  If the master has her marry his son, she is to be treated like a daughter. If the son marries another woman, the first wife is to be given food, clothing, and marital rights.  If the master fails to provide these three necessities, she is to be given her freedom.

Sometimes it was necessary to hire oneself out as a servant in order to live. Once hired, the servant became the property of the master. Though the rules for marriage and leaving behind a wife and children seem harsh, it may have been the best option for a male servant who had to return to a life of poverty.

There are examples of servanthood in Scripture. Jacob worked 7 years for Leah and seven more for Rachel.  Though he was not sold into servanthood, his father-in-law treated him as a servant for 14 years.  This is why Jacob wanted to create his own flocks and leave with his family.  If Laban had his way, Jacob would have remained serving him forever.

Another example of servanthood is Hagar, Sarah’s Egyptian servant, who had a child with Abraham. When Abraham no longer wanted Hagar and his son in his camp, he sent them away with provisions.

“The word came to Jeremiah from Adonai after King Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people in Jerusalem to proclaim freedom for the slaves. Everyone was to free their Hebrew slaves, both male and female; no one was to hold a fellow Hebrew in bondage.  So all the officials and people who entered into this covenant agreed that they would free their male and female slaves and no longer hold them in bondage. They agreed, and set them free.  But afterward they changed their minds and took back the slaves they had freed and enslaved them again” (Jeremiah 34:8-11).

Attacks and murder
No sentence of death was arbitrary. Each case was heard by a judge, with a minimum of two witnesses, before there could be a guilty verdict. It was important that the witnesses were not false nor took bribes because a sentence would be executed and a guilty verdict had serious consequences.

If one person attacks another and a death occurs, the murderer must be put to death.  If the killing was not premeditated, but accidental, then Adonai provided a place for the murderer to flee.  However, if someone kills another after deliberate planning, they are to be put to death.

This is the same command given to Noach in Genesis 9:6, “Whoever sheds human blood by humans shall their blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made mankind.”  There is a great controversy over capital punishment because humanity has forgotten they are made in the image of Adonai and each human life has value.

Kidnappers are to be put to death.  It doesn’t matter if the victim has been sold or is still held by the kidnapper; the kidnapper is to die. Children who attack their parents are to be put to death, and whoever curses his father or mother must also die.

If two people fight and one person is injured, being confined to bed, and then recovers and is able to walk around (even with a cane), the attacker will be free of liability. He must still compensate the victim time loss and take responsibility for his care until recovery is complete. The Parable of the Good Samaritan in Luke 10:25-37 is an example of this mishpat. It was not the priest or the Levite who obeyed instruction, but a Samaritan, a foreigner, who took care of the man beaten by robbers.

If two men are fighting and a pregnant woman is injured so that her unborn child dies, the man must be fined.  He must pay the amount set by the woman’s husband and confirmed by the judge.  The amount is determined by a judge so the husband doesn’t set an amount too low –– the unborn child has great value in the eyes of Adonai. If any harm happens to the woman after the baby dies, then it is commanded life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, and bruise for bruise” (Exodus 21:23-24). The ‘eye for eye’ judgment was restitution for an unborn baby and the woman who had lost her baby, not a command for more cruelty.

“You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’ But I [Yeshua] tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also.  And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well.  If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles.  Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you” (Matthew 5:38-42).

Yeshua does not the mishpatim; he expounds on them.  Restitution and compensation does not suddenly become obsolete because of Yeshua’s words. He includes forgiveness and mercy, the character of his Father to the rulings.   “Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth” was another way to express compensation for a wrong committed that needed justice, but needed to be followed by forgiveness. Yeshua teaches that there is more than just the outward expression of these mishpatim, there is a heart condition that needs to be resolved so that anger and bitterness would not grow among the people.

A master is to be punished for any slave who is beaten with a stick so that he or she dies. If the slave lives for a couple of days, the master is not punished since the slave is his property. If a master hits his slave’s eye and destroys it, he must let the slave go free in compensation for the eye.  If a tooth of a slave’s mouth is knocked out, the slave is to be set free as compensation for the tooth.

According to Adonai, human life is more valuable than an animal. If an ox gores a man or woman to death, the ox is to be stoned.  The owner of the ox has no further liability after the animal has been put to death. If the ox has the habit of goring people and the owner was warned, but did not confine it so that it kept killing, then the ox and the owner are to be killed.  If a ransom is offered for the owner, the death penalty will be commuted.  If the ox gores a son or daughter, the same rules are to be followed.  If the ox gores a slave, the owner is to give the master 12 ounces of silver, and the ox is to be killed.

If one person’s ox hurts someone else’s ox so that it dies, the live ox is to be sold and the revenue divided between the two owners. The dead animal is also to be divided. If the ox was known to be in the habit of goring, the owner is to pay ox for ox, and the dead animal is his responsibility.  The compensation is five times for an ox and four times for a sheep.

If an uncovered cistern or well causes the death of an animal, the owner of the well must compensate the owner of the animal, but the dead animal is his.

Selah
The word ‘gore’ means ‘blood that has been shed as a result of violence.’ If someone is gored and they don’t die, the animal is to be put to death. Change the word ‘ox’ in the rulings to a ‘dog.’

Justice
One of the Ten Commandments is to not bear false testimony against a neighbor. More specifically, do not repeat false rumors (or even true ones). This is known as lashon hara or ‘a wicked tongue.’

Do not join hands with the wicked by offering perjured testimony. Do not follow the crowd when it does what is wrong. Do not allow the popular view to sway you into offering testimony for any cause if the effect is to pervert justice (Exodus 23:2).

Keep away from fraud, and do not cause the death of the innocent and righteous; for Adonai will not justify the wicked. You are not to receive a bribe for it blinds the sight and subverts the righteous. Do not favor a person’s lawsuit just because he is poor and do not deny anyone justice who is poor.

Restitution
A thief must make restitution.  If he has nothing, then he is to be sold to make restitution for the loss from the theft.  If what he stole is found in his possession, he is to pay double whether it is an ox, donkey, or sheep. If a thief is caught breaking into a person’s home and is beaten to death, it is not murder unless it happens after sunrise. 

If a person trusts a neighbor with personal property and it is stolen, then the thief must pay double.  If the thief is not found, then the neighbor must state before Adonai that he did not steal the property.   If there is a dispute over ownership of property, whether it’s an ox, donkey, sheep, clothing or any missing property, where one person says, “This is mine,” both parties are to come before Adonai; the one He condemns must pay the other double.

If an animal gets loose and grazes in someone else’s field, the owner is to make restitution from the best produce of his own field or vineyard.

If someone is looking after a neighbor’s property, a donkey, ox, sheep or any animal, and it dies, is injured or disappears, then the neighbor’s oath before Adonai that he has not stolen the property will settle the matter. The owner is to accept the oath without any restitution.  However, if the property was stolen from the neighbor, he must make restitution to the owner.   If there is evidence the animal was torn to pieces, then no restitution is required.

If someone borrows an animal from their neighbor and it gets injured or dies with the owner not present, he must make restitution.  If the owner was present, he does not need to make restitution.  If the owner hired it out, the loss is covered by the hiring fee.

If you see your enemy’s ox or donkey straying, you must return it to him.  If you see an animal that belongs to someone who hates you lying down helpless under its load, do not pass him by, but help him free it.

Our family has had some of these issues with our neighbor’s cows. They break our fences, graze in our front yard leaving huge divots, and break sprinkler heads because of their weight. Though we have tried to work peacefully with our neighbor, he has no desire to fix our damaged property. Though the district justice says we can file a small claim in court and receive restitution, we know our neighbor will never comply. Over the years, we have let him know when his cows were on the road or on the railroad tracks. He is always grateful, but never willing to pay restitution for damages done on our property.

If a fire is started and spreads to thorns so that stacked grain, standing grain or a field is destroyed, the person who started the fire must make restitution.  This is the reason for an investigation into the cause of a wildfire. The person who starts it must make restitution for damage and loss of property.

Loans
Adonai’s people are not to charge interest when a poor person borrows money.  If a neighbor’s coat is taken as a down payment (collateral), it is to be returned to him at sundown because it is his only garment.

Immoral Behavior
A virgin, not engaged to be married, who is seduced by a man must pay a bride price and take the girl as his wife.  If her father refuses the man, he must pay a sum equivalent to the bride price for virgins.

Anyone who has sexual relations with an animal must be put to death. This is known as beastiality and is becoming more common in our world. In Europe, there are beast sex parlors. Not only is this unhealthy for humans, it is cruel to the animals.

Sorcery uses the occult practices to control forces in the spiritual realm. Adonai commands that witches along with sorceresses be put to death.

Food
Because the Israelites are to be Adonai’s treasured possession, they are not to eat meat torn by wild animals in the countryside. It is only good for feeding dogs.

“Do not boil a young animal in its mother’s milk” (Exodus 23:19).

This command has been used to develop kashrut and the man-made kosher regulation that milk and meat are not to be eaten together. Abraham served meat with curds to the three angels, one of them being Adonai, proving this is not the foundation for the command.

Maimonides suggested that this type of ‘cooking’ was used in pagan worship. Archaeological findings in 1929 supported his theory. “In the Canaanite ritual, the milk in which the kid was cooked symbolized the milk that newly born gods were given when suckled by the pagan goddesses Athirst and Rahmay. The cooking of a goat in milk was forbidden in the Bible because it symbolizes the suckling [by the pagan goddesses} of the newborn gods!”

Sabbath
Six days were for work, but the seventh day was for rest so that animals, servants, and the visiting foreigner might be refreshed. The Sabbath was not only for the Israelites to rest, but also for the guests in their home. Even animals were to be given a day of rest; they did not work on the Sabbath.

Six years seeds were to be sown, but the seventh year, the land was to rest and lie fallow. The same was to be done with the olive grove and vineyards. Plant and harvest for six years, but give trees and vineyards rest in the seventh year. This is called sh’mittah or the Sabbath year. This command was given so the land could be refreshed. The poor were given the corners of the fields and the gleanings of the fields for six years; on the seventh year, they could harvest whatever continued to grow.

Hebrew Word Pictures
Shemita (Release) – שמיטה – shin, mem, yod, tet, hey
– consume chaos finished work twisting revealed

Other gods
Anyone who sacrificed to any god other than Adonai was to be completely destroyed.  The Israelites were not to invoke the names of other gods or even speak their names. This is the epitome of idolatry –– sacrificing to other gods. The Israelites were not to worship the gods of the Emorites, Hittites, Perrizites, Canaanites, Hivites or Jebusites nor follow their practices.  They were to demolish all idols and standing stones. They were not to make covenants with their enemies or their gods so that Isra’el would remain faithful to Adonai.


Because Isra’el had been foreigners in Egypt, they were not to oppress a foreigner; they understood how it felt to be oppressed (Exodus 23:9). Widows and orphans (the fatherless) held a special place in Adonai’s heart. If they were abused and He heard their cry, His anger would burn against the Israelites, and He would kill them with the sword making their own wives widows and their children fatherless.

Pilgrimages to Jerusalem

There were three ‘appointed times’ when the men of Isra’el were to appear before Adonai: Pesach in first month of the year followed by Shavuot 50 days later. The third gathering was to be at Sukkot in the seventh month.

During the festival of Matzah, unleavened bread was to be eaten for seven days. On Shavuot, the firstfruits of barley were to be brought to the House of Adonai. At the end of the year, at the ingathering, the final harvest was to be presented to Adonai.

The Messenger of Adonai

Adonai sent an angel to guard His people and to bring them to the place He had prepared.  They were to listen to what the angel said and not rebel against him. He would not forgive any wrongdoings since Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh’s name resides in him. If they listen to what the angel says and do everything he tells them, then Adonai will be an enemy to their enemies.

The Hebrew word for ‘angel’ is malak and means ‘messenger.’ This is the same ‘angel’ who acted as the Destroyer in Egypt. This is the same ‘angel’ that moved from the front of the children of Isra’el to their rear in order to protect them from the Egyptian army. This ‘angel’ is not a separate entity from Adonai, but does His will, in this case, teaching His commands to the Israelites in the wilderness. This ‘angel’ also has the authority to forgive. According to Malachi 3:1, this ‘angel’ is the ‘“messenger of the covenant.” The Israelites must listen to what the ‘angel’ says and do everything he says because he has the name Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh making the angel Adonai.

Yeshua is the Word that was with Elohim in the beginning at creation, and he is Elohim (John 1:1-2). He is the voice of Elohim and teacher of Torah to the Israelites. He has the authority to forgive sins and do the works of Elohim (Matthew 9:5-6, John 10:25,30). The ‘angel’ they see and the words they hear are the essence of Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh in Yeshua.

Deliverance to Holiness

There are blessings for obeying the mishpatim and curses for disobedience (Deuteronomy 28).  Until Adonai gave Isra’el His commandments and rulings, they had only taken the first step in the salvation process –– justification. They had put their faith in the blood of the lamb. They had been delivered from the idols of Egypt. They were immersed as they walked on dry land through the Red Sea.

Isra’el did nothing of themselves to be redeemed from Egypt nor did they earn it by being good people. Grace and mercy is the character of Adonai in the old testament as well as the new. Faith in the blood the lamb, victory over death, forgiveness of sins, and immersion in water are found in both testaments.

Hebrew Word Pictures
Grace (Kindness and Favor) or chen – חן – chet, nun
– protects life

Mercy (Compassion) or rachum – רחום – resh, chet, vav, mem
– highest authority protects and binds chaos

Sanctify (Consecrated, Holy) or kadosh – קדש – kof, dalet, shin
– what is behind the consuming pathway

Faith (Agreement) or emunah – אמונח – alef, mem, vav, nun, hey
– first strength binds chaos and protects life

‘Holiness’ or becoming set-apart to Elohim is the second step of the salvation process –– sanctification. The Israelites were led to Mount Sinai to meet with Adonai. They washed their clothes and prepared themselves to stand in His presence. At the foot of Mount Sinai, the children of Isra’el, along with the Egyptians who exited Egypt with them, were united and transformed into the nation of Isra’el through the instructions of Adonai .

With their obedience to Adonai’s Torah, they would be different from every other nation. They were to keep His Sabbath, His ‘appointed times,’ and follow His dietary regulations. They were to treat their personal property, slaves and animals with dignity. If they served other gods and assimilated into the cultures around them, they would no longer be recognized as His chosen people and would lose His blessing. If they obeyed Torah, Adonai would bless their food and water.  If they listened to His instructions, He would take away their sicknesses.

Yeshua turned water into wine and multiplied fives loaves and two fish in order to feed a multitude. Yeshua healed those who were sick, lame, and leprous. What if Yeshua had rebelled against his Father’s commands? Would the water have changed into wine? Would the loaves and fishes have been multiplied to feed 5000? Yeshua says that if we trust in him, we will not only do the works he did, but even greater ones. Are we doing the same miraculous things, or because we have been taught to disobey Adonai’s mitzvot are we impotent?

The blessing for Israelite women who obey Adonai’s instructions is birthing children. They will not miscarry or be barren. For the promise of descendants to Abraham to be fulfilled, women have to have babies. Through Adonai’s mercy, not all babies born in Egypt were murdered and lived to form a huge nation. Women are still women regardless of nationality and the regulations for niddah and childbirth still have value.

The promise for Israelite children who honor their parents is long life. Long life meant eternal in the Garden of Eden. After sin entered the world, the human life span was reduced to less than 1000 years.   After Noach, the life span was reduced even more. Psalm 90 says a man’s days are 70 to 80 years.  To enjoy the fullness of those years, children must honor their parents; the children of Adonai must obey their His Torah in order to receive long life.

“And everyone who has this hope in him continues purifying himself, since God is pure. Everyone who keeps sinning is violating Torah — indeed, sin is violation of Torah. You know that he appeared in order to take away sins, and that there is no sin in him. So no one who remains united with him continues sinning; everyone who does continue sinning has neither seen him nor known him. Children, don’t let anyone deceive you — it is the person that keeps on doing what is right who is righteous, just as God is righteous. The person who keeps on sinning is from the Adversary, because from the very beginning the Adversary has kept on sinning. It was for this very reason that the Son of God appeared, to destroy these doings of the Adversary. No one who has God as his Father keeps on sinning, because the seed planted by God remains in him. That is, he cannot continue sinning, because he has God as his Father. Here is how one can distinguish clearly between God’s children and those of the Adversary: everyone who does not continue doing what is right is not from God” (1 John 3:3-10).

Hornets

“I will send terror of me ahead of you, throwing into confusion all the people to whom you come; and I will make all your enemies turn their backs on you. I will send hornets ahead of you to drive out the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites” (Exodus 23:27-28).

‘Hornet’ in Hebrew is tzirah and means ‘stinging.’  The Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites will be driven out from the Promised Land by a stinging bug creating ‘terror.’ This ‘terror’ will throw the nations into confusion. In Isra’el, there are four species of hornets bearing a resemblance to the common wasp, but larger in size.  It is an extremely fierce and ravenous insect especially in a hot climate.  Its sting is dangerous and they attack human beings in a very furious manner. A swarm of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness and has even caused the death of the animals.

Spelled almost like hornet is tzarat meaning ‘to smite.‘   The town of Zorah in Joshua 19:41 may mean ‘town of hornets.’  In Isaiah 7:18, the fly and the bee are symbolic to the armies of Egypt and Assyria.  It could be interpreted that the hornet is symbolic of Adonai fighting for Isra’el as He did when He caused confusion within the Egyptian army (Exodus 24:14).

Hebrew Word Pictures
Hornet (Stinging) or tzirah – צרעה – tzade, resh, ayin, hey
– pull toward to the highest authority, understand and behold

National Boundaries
The nations will be driven out of the Promised Land by Adonai through terror. He will do it slowly so the land won’t become desolate or abundant with wild animals. He will drive out the nations until the Isra’el is large enough to take possession of the Land. The boundaries of the Land of Promise are much larger than the modern state of Isra’el. The true boundaries stretch from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to the desert all the way to the Euphrates River. As the Israelites enter the Promised Land, they are to displace the nations so as not to sin against Adonai by worshiping their gods or making a covenant with them.

The Book of the Covenant

Moshe wrote down all the words of Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh.  He built and altar at the base of the mountain and set up 12 large stones to represent the 12 Tribes of Isra’el.  Young men collected burnt offerings and peace offerings from the people. Moshe took half the blood and put it in basins; the other half he splashed against the altar. He took the book of the covenant and read it aloud so that all the people could hear. But, before they even heard the words of the covenant, the Israelites responded, “Everything that Adonai has spoken, we will do and obey” (Exodus 24:7).

 “Moshe took the blood of the animals, sprinkled it on the people and said, ‘This is the blood of the covenant which Adonai has made with you in accordance with all these words” (Exodus 24:8).

This is the third covenant Elohim makes. The first covenant was with Noach, the second with Abraham, the third is with the nation of Isra’el. It includes Adonai’s instructions and was instituted with the sprinkling of blood –– “the blood of the covenant.” For the nation of Isra’el, this is their covenant because they had never been in a covenant relationship with Adonai before. The covenant with Isra’el doesn’t negate the first two covenants, but builds on them.

Moshe, Aaron, Nadav, Avihu and Isra’el’s leaders go up on the mountain to meet with the Elohim of Isra’el. Like the 70 palm trees at Elim, there are 70 men who meet with Elohim. Seventy is the numerical value of the Hebrew letter ayin meaning ‘to see.’ On the mountain, the 70 leaders are given a glimpse of the heavenly realm where Adonai sits on His Throne. While Moshe approaches the presence of Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh, the others prostrate themselves at a distance.

Under Adonai’s feet is a pavement like sapphire, clear as the sky.  The Hebrew word lebenah means ‘bricks’ or ‘pavement’ and only occurs this one time in Scripture. ‘Sapphire’ is Greek for lapis lazuli, a deep blue semi-precious stone known for its intense color.  The prophet Ezekiel describes the Throne of Adonai as being lapis lazuli (Ezekiel 1:26-28). One of the fringes of the tzizit is blue like the sea and the sky representing the ‘pavement’ and the Throne of Adonai (Numbers 15:38). Adonai does not reach out His hand against these men, instead they ‘see’ Him while they eat and drink, symbolizing a fellowship meal between the priestly leaders and Elohim.

The glory of Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh hovered over Mount Sinai in a cloud for six days. To the Israelites, it looked like a raging fire on the top of the mountain.  On the seventh day Adonai called to Moshe from the cloud and he left his brother and the 70 leaders and entered the cloud where he remained 40 days and nights.  With the glory appearing like a raging fire on the top of the mountain, the Israelites feared that Moshe had been consumed by it. When Moshe did not return from the cloud, Aaron and the 70 men left the mountain for the camp. After Moshe had been gone for 40 days and 40 nights, the Israelites were sure he had died.

During his time in the cloud, Adonai gave Moshe the stone tablets on which He wrote Torah. He gave Moshe all of His commandments so he could teach the Israelites how worship Him and live holy lives honor Him.

Yeshua and the Mitzvot

Yeshua spent 40 days and 40 nights on a wilderness mountain. During his time of testing, he quoted from Torah to silence the Adversary. He tempted Yeshua to worship him, create bread for his hunger, and test the angels of his Father. Yeshua understood “man doesn’t live on bread alone, but every word that comes from the mouth of his Father” (Matthew 4:1-11).

“One of them who was a Torah expert asked a sh’eilah to trap him: ‘Rabbi, which of the mitzvot in the Torah is the most important?’ He told him, ‘You are to love Adonai your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.’ This is the greatest and most important mitzvah. And a second is similar to it, ‘You are to love your neighbor as yourself.’ All of the Torah and the Prophets are dependent on these two mitzvot” (Matthew 22:34-40).

Sh’eilah is the Hebrew word for ‘question.’ When used in this context, it means asking questions about Torah and halacha, expecting someone with authority to answer. Halacha means ‘to go’ and was the legally accepted way to live out a Torah command.

“So, everyone who hears these words of mine and acts on them will be like a sensible man who built his house on [the Rock]. The rain fell, the rivers flooded, the winds blew and beat against that house, but it didn’t collapse, because its foundation was on [the Rock]. But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not act on them will be like a stupid man who built his house on sand” Matthew 7:24-26).

“Anyone who runs ahead and does not continue in the teaching of Messiah [Yeshua] does not have God; whoever continues in the teaching has both the Father and the Son” (2 John 1:9).

©2018 Tentstake Ministries Publishing, all rights reserved.  No copying or reproducing of this article without crediting the author or Tentstake Ministries Publishing. For a hard copy of this Torah portion, the weekly readings of the Prophets and New Testament, and springboard for midrash, please purchase Open My Eyes: Wonders of Torah.