Posts Tagged ‘Exodus 25:1-27:19’

Parashah 19: T’rumah (Contribution)

Parashah 19: Exodus 25:1-27:19

“Adonai said to Moshe, ‘Tell the people of Isra’el to take up a collection for me — accept a contribution from anyone who wholeheartedly wants to give’” (Exodus 25:1-2).

Moshe meets with Yahweh and receives the instructions for making the Tabernacle or Tent of Meeting.  In order to make the Tabernacle and the holy objects, Yahweh tells Moshe to take up a free-will offering from those who ‘wholeheartedly’ desire to give.  The people contribute gold, silver and bronze; blue, purple and scarlet yarn; fine linen, goat’s hair, tanned ram skins and fine leather; acacia wood; oil for the lamp, spices for the incense; onyx stones and others stones to be used for the ritual vest and breastplate.

While the Complete Jewish Bible uses ‘wholeheartedly, the New International Version says, “whose heart prompts them to give” and the Orthodox Jewish Bible, “give it willingly with his heart ….”  Sha’ul also describes the free-will offering, “Each should give according to what he has decided in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver” (2 Corinthians 9:7).

The Greek word hilaro used in Corinthians means ‘hilarious, laughing and merry.’  It’s not that Elohim wanted Isra’el to be laughing hysterically when they gave, but He desired them to be filled with great joy. They had been blessed abundantly with huge plunder from the Egyptians that could be used to build Elohim’s dwelling among the people.

Contributions came from people with ‘willing hearts’ meaning not everyone would be giving.   There are always some whose hearts are hard and have no desire to give.   The Greek gogguzo for ‘grudgingly’ means ‘with murmuring.’ The Greek lupé for ‘compulsion’ means with ‘pain, grief or sorrow.’   An unwilling person gives sorrowfully with the parting of whatever they are giving and murmurs about it.

The Amplified Bible translates 2 Corinthians 9:7,

”Let each one [give] as he has made up his own mind and purposed in his heart, not reluctantly or sorrowfully or under compulsion, for God loves (He takes pleasure in, prizes above other things, and is unwilling to abandon or to do without) a cheerful (joyous, “prompt to do it”) giver [whose heart is in his giving].”

Kodesh haKadashim – The Holy of Holies

The sanctuary and all of its furnishings are to be made according to everything Moshe is shown on the mountain “because what they are serving is only a copy and shadow of the heavenly original” (Hebrews 8:1-6).  

 The Ark of the Covenant

Hear us, Shepherd of Isra’el, you who lead Joseph like a flock. You who sit enthroned between the cherubim …” (Psalm 80:1).

The Ark of the Covenant was made of Acacia wood 3 ¾ feet long, 2 ¼ feet wide and 2 ¼  feet high.  It was covered both inside and out with pure gold.   A gold  molding went around the top with four gold rings attached to each of the four sides, two rings on each side.  Two poles made of Acacia wood covered with gold were put permanently into the rings on the sides of the Ark so it could be carried. 

Many of the objects in the Tabernacle used Acacia wood overlaid with gold.  Acacia wood is also known as wattles.  The origin of wattle may mean ‘to weave’ and its branches have been used to weave walls and fences.  Acacia is a shrub or small tree found in the wilderness area where the Israelites traveled.  It is a strong wood and its density makes it difficult for water or insects to penetrate keeping to safe from decay. 


Yeshua’s body never saw decay (Psalm 16:9-11).

Kapporeth – The Ark Cover

“I will live in your tent forever and find refuge in the shelter of your wings (Selah)” (Psalm 61:5).

The Ark’s cover was also made of Acacia wood and covered in gold.   It was 3 ¾ feet long and 2¼  feet wide.  Two k’ruvim or cherubim were made of hammered gold, one piece with the Ark cover.  One was put at the head of the Ark cover and the other at the foot and facing each other.  The cherubim had their wings spread open covering the ‘mercy seat’ or kapporeth where the high priest placed the blood of atonement on Yom Kippur.  This is a representation of the two k’ruvim who were placed at the entrance to Gan Eden keeping Adam and Eve out and to protect the Tree of Life.  In the Holy of Holies at the Ark of the Covenant, Yahweh would meet with Moshe and speak to him from above the kapporeth between the two k’ruvim.

Hebrew Word Pictures

Atonement (Cover) or kapporeth – כפורת – kaf, peh, vav, resh, tav

cover speaks of the binding, the head of the covenant

Cherub (Heavenly Being) or keruv – כרוב – kaf, resh, vav, bet

cover of the head binds to the house

The Holy Place

“A tent was set up, the outer one, which was called the Holy Place; in it were the menorah, the table and the Bread of the Presence” (Hebrews 9:2).

Table of Presence

A table made of Acacia wood 3 feet long, 18 inches wide and 18 inches high was covered with gold.  It had a molding of gold around the top like the Ark with a rim about 6 inches wide.  It had four gold rings attached to the four corners near the legs to hold the poles that would be used to carry the table.  The poles were made of Acacia wood and covered in gold.    The dishes, pans, bowls and pitchers used with the table were also made of pure gold.  The Bread of Presence would be placed on the Table.


“I’ve been looking at a menorah; it’s all of gold, with a bowl at its top, seven lamps on it, and seven tubes leading to the lamps at its top. Next to it are two olive trees, one on the right side of the bowl and the other on its left” (Zechariah 4:2-3).

The Menorah, the seven-branched oil lamp, was one piece made of pure hammered gold. Its base, shaft, cups, ring of outer leaves and petals were all one piece.  It had six branches extending from its sides, three branches on one side of the central shaft and three on the other.  

On each branch were three cups shaped like almond blossoms, each with a ring of outer leaves and petals.  On the central shaft were four cups shaped like almond blossoms, each with its ring of outer leaves and petals.  Where each pair of branches joined the central shaft was a ring of outer leaves one piece with the pair of branches.  All six branches were made the same way.  All of its tongs and trays were made of pure gold.   The seven lamps for the Menorah were mounted to light the space in front of it.  The total amount of gold for the Menorah  and its utensils was 60 pounds.  At todays value of gold, the cost of gold for the Menorah would be $1,267,200.

The Hebrew word Menorah has the root word or which means ‘light.’ The Hebrew word Torah also has the root of or.  Both the menorah and the instructions of Elohim light our paths and guide our steps (Psalm 119:105).

Hebrew Word Pictures

or (Light)  אורalef, vav, resh

the first binding of the head

Menorah (Lampstand) – מנורה – mem, noon, vav, resh, hey

the mighty life bound to the head revealed

Torah (Instruction) – תורה – tav, vav, resh, hey

the bound to the head revealed

The Tabernacle or Mishkan

“He [Adonai] abandoned the Tabernacle at Shiloh, the tent he had made where he could live among people” (Psalm 78:60).

The Hebrew word mishkan means ‘tent’ and was the portable tent that became the dwelling place of Yahweh’s glory while the Israelites traveled through the wilderness.  The sides of the Mishkan were made with 10 sheets of finely woven linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, 42 feet long and 6 feet wide.  Two sets of five sheets were joined to one another.  Fifty loops of blue were on the edge of the outermost sheet in the first set and the same to the second set opposite each other. Fifty fasteners of gold connected the sheets to each other so the Mishkan formed one single unit.  A skilled artisan crafted k’ruvim or cherubim into each sheet.  

Hebrew Word Pictures

Mishkan (Tent)– משכן – mem, shin, kaf, noon

the mighty consumes and covers life

For the Mishkan, there were four layers of coverings:  linen, goat skins, ram skins and badger skins.  The linen curtains were the first inside layer and the only covering seen by the priests who entered the Holy Place.  Tapestries made of blue, purple and scarlet yarn had k’ruvim woven in them.  Linen represents the pure and holy priesthood. The armies of Messiah and his Bride are also clothed in linen garments (Revelation 19).

Eleven sheets of woven goat’s skin black fur covered the linen curtains as the second layer.  Each sheet was 45 feet long and 6 feet wide.  Five sheets were joined together with the sixth sheet folded double at the front of the tent.  Fifty loops were made on the edge of the outermost sheet with 50 fasteners of bronze put in the loops to join the tent together so that it formed a single unit.  The sheets hung over the back of the Tabernacle, 18 inches on each side.

On the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur),  two goats were required for the purification of the Tabernacle and the people of Isra’el.  One goat was sacrificed as the offering for the sins of Isra’el.  The other goat, the scapegoat, was presented alive to Elohim. On the head of this goat, Aaron placed all of the sins of the nation of Isra’el and then it was set free in the wilderness to take the sins far away from the camp purifying it from sin (Leviticus 16:21-22).   Though many commentaries suggest the goat skins represent Messiah’s sacrifice for sin,  it is important to note the goat brought purification from sin and restoration of the Tabernacle.  Like the scapegoat, Yeshua’s bloodpurifies us from sin so fellowship is restored between Elohim and man.   (1 John 1:7).   

Ram skins were the third covering.  These skins were dyed red and waterproof.  The Hebrew word for ‘ram’ is ayil and means ‘strong one.’  Rams were used for burnt offerings and the consecration of priests.   It was a ram Abraham found in the thicket that became the substitute sacrifice for Isaac.  The skins of the ram are a reminder of the ‘binding of Isaac’ and shadow of the binding of Yeshua to the cross. Yeshua is the ‘strength’ of his Father who became the substitute ‘ram’ for the sins of humanity. 

The fourth covering was made of badger skins.  The Hebrew word for ‘badger’ is tachach and translated as a sea cow or dugong, an aquatic animal that swam along the shores of the Red Sea.  This was final waterproof covering that had no real beauty.  This was the exterior part of the Tabernacle that was seen by everyone in the camp.  Yeshua was not especially handsome; his appearance did not attract us so it was easy to see him and not recognize him (Isaiah 53;2).   


Each of the coverings describe the believer’s walk of faith.  Being human, whether Jew or non-Jew, is a common life experience.  Like the exterior badger skin, our humanity is nothing.  We are made from the dust of the earth only to return to the dust. Our outer shell is seen by everyone, but will disappear like the withering grass.

The ram’s skin is the first step of salvation when one accepts the substitute sacrifice given to Adam and Eve, Abraham and Isaac and to each of us through Yeshua.  These skins are dyed red as a reminder of a covenant that was instituted and secured by blood, the blood of the ‘ram’ that takes away the ‘sin of the world.’   

The third covering is the goat skin and the next step in salvation.  It symbolizes a walk of sanctification that purifies us from sin.  It is necessary to be purified from everything that contaminates body, soul and spirit (2 Corinthians 6:17).

The linen represents the third part of salvation, the hope of glory, our transformation from mortality to immortality.  This linen cover represents priests who will minister in the Tabernacle for our High Priest, Yeshua; the armies that will fight with their Commander, Yeshua; and the Bride of the Bridegroom, Yeshua.

In order to complete the interior of the Mishkan, it was necessary to have planks, crossbars and sockets.  Upright planks were made of Acacia wood 15 feet long and 2 ¼ feet wide.  Two projections on each plank joined them together.  On the northern and southern sides were 20 planks each with 40 silver sockets under the planks (two sockets under one plank).  On the western and eastern sides were six planks.  On the rear corners were two planks and at the back, there were eight planks with 16 silver sockets. 

Crossbars were made of Acacia wood overlaid with gold.  There were five crossbars for the planks on each side; the middle cross bar, halfway up the planks was to extend from end to end   All the planks were covered with gold with gold rings through which the crossbars would pass.

With the abundance of  gold and silver inside the Tabernacle, there would have been an ethereal glow emanating from the light of the Menorah.  To minister within the tent walls of the Mishkan, a priest would be supernaturally enveloped into the essence of the heavenly Tabernacle.

The Dividing Curtain – The Veil

“Only the cohen hagadol [high priest] enters the inner one [Holy of Holies]; and he goes in only once a year, and he must always bring blood, which he offers both for himself and for the sins committed in ignorance by the people” (Hebrews 9:7).

A curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely woven linen was made with  k’ruvim worked into the tapestry.  It was hung with gold hooks on four acacia-wood posts overlaid with gold and stood in four silver sockets.  The curtain was hung below the fasteners.  The curtain separated the Holy of Holies from the Holy Place and was called the parokhet coming from the Hebrew word pargod which means ‘cloth’ and can also refer to a coat or cloak.

In Jewish tradition, it was believed the Temple veil was the lower part or ‘hem’ of the garment of Elohim.  In Scripture, when someone tore their clothes, it wasn’t a random act.  The word for ‘tear’ in Hebrew is keriah and means ‘cut.’  Tearing clothes was a sign of a broken heart.  When the veil, or Elohim’s garment was torn in two at Yeshua’s death, it was evidence the Father’s heart was ‘cut’ and broken at the death of His son.

“The curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.  And when the centurion, who stood there in front of Yeshua, saw how he died, he said, “Surely this man was the Son of God!” (Mark 15:38-39)

Hebrew Word Pictures

Veil (Curtain) or parokhet – פרוכת – peh, resh, vav, kaf, tav

the mouth of the head, the binding covers the covenant

The Door to the Mishkan

The door to the Tabernacle was a screen made of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely woven linen.  To hang the screen,  five posts of Acacia wood overlaid with gold and five bronze sockets were made.

The five posts covered in gold  have been interpreted to be the five books of Torah or the pillars of instruction the priests used to teach the nation of Isra’el.  Only the priesthood could pass beyond this ‘door’ and enter the Holy Place where the Menorah, the Table of Presence and the Altar of Incense were located.  In the Holy Place, they would offer prayers of intercession with incense, walk by the light of the Menorah, and eat a fellowship meal at the Table of Presence.

The Courtyard

“Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name; bring an offering and come into his courts” (Psalm 96:8).

The entire Tabernacle area was enclosed with a ‘fence’ measuring 150 feet by 75 feet.  Tapestries, 7 ½ feet high,  were made of finely woven linen supported by posts in bronze sockets.  All of the posts around the Courtyard were banded in silver and stood in bronze sockets. The hooks on the posts and rings for attaching the tapestries were made of silver.

The Altar of Sacrifice

“Adonai is God, and he gives us light. Join in the pilgrim festival with branches all the way to the horns of the altar” (Psalm 118:27).

The Altar of Sacrifice, located in the Courtyard, was square, 7 ½ feet long and 7 ½  feet wide and made of Acacia wood planks.  It was hollow on the inside and overlaid with bronze.  It was to be 4 ½  feet high with horns on its four corners, one piece with the Altar.  All utensils, pots, shovels, basins, meat-hooks and fire pans were made of bronze.  It had a grate of bronze netting and bronze rings on the four corners.  Poles overlaid with bronze were put into the rings on each side for transporting.

The Gate

“Enter his gates with thanksgiving and his courts with praise; give thanks to him and praise his name” (Psalm 100:4).

The only way to enter the Courtyard was through the gate which was a colorful screen 30 feet wide made of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely woven linen.  It was hung on four posts in four sockets.  Everything else needed for serving in the Tabernacle, as well as the tent pegs, were made of bronze.

Yeshua, the Mishkan

Holy of Holies

“But when the Messiah appeared as cohen gadol [High Priest] of the good things that are happening already, then, through the greater and more perfect Tent which is not man-made (that is, it is not of this created world),  he entered the Holiest Place once and for all” (Hebrews 9:11-12).

Ark of the Covenant

“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, accompanied by all the angels, he will sit on his glorious throne. All the nations will be assembled before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates sheep from goats. The ‘sheep’ he will place at his right hand and the ‘goats’ at his left” (Matthew 24:31-33).

The Kapporeth

“As Miryam cried, she bent down, peered into the tomb, and saw two angels in white sitting where the body of Yeshua had been, one at the head and one at the feet.   “Why are you crying?” they asked her. “They took my Lord,” she said to them, “and I don’t know where they have put him” (John 20:11-12).

The Veil

“What is more, their minds were made stone like; for to this day the same veil remains over them when they read the former Covenant; it has not been unveiled, because only by the Messiah is the veil taken away.  Yes, till today, whenever Moshe is read, a veil lies over their heart” (2 Corinthians 3:14-15).

The Holy Place

“There he [Yeshua] serves in the Holy Place, that is, in the true Tent of Meeting, the one erected not by human beings but by Adonai” (Hebrews 8:2).

The Table of Presence

“Yeshua said to them, “Yes, indeed! I tell you it wasn’t Moshe who gave you the bread from heaven. But my Father is giving you the genuine bread from heaven; for God’s bread is the one who comes down out of heaven and gives life to the world …. “I am the bread which is life! Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever trusts in me will never be thirsty” (John 6:31-35).


“He came to be a testimony, to bear witness concerning the light; so that through him, everyone might put his trust in God and be faithful to him” (John 1:7).

Yeshua spoke to them again: “I am the light of the world; whoever follows me will never walk in darkness but will have the light which gives life” (John 8:12).

“While I am in the world, I am the light of the world” (John 9:5).

The Tabernacle

“The Word became flesh and Tabernacled among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14).

The Temple Curtain

“But Yeshua, again crying out in a loud voice, yielded up his spirit. At that moment the parokhet in the Temple was ripped in two from top to bottom; and there was an earthquake, with rocks splitting apart” (Matthew 27:50-51).

The Door to the Holy Place

“Here, I’m standing at the door, knocking. If someone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he will eat with me” (Revelation 3:20).

The Courtyard

“After three days they found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions.  Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers” (Luke 2:46-47).

The Bronze Laver

“So he [Yeshua] rose from the table, removed his outer garments and wrapped a towel around his waist.  Then he poured some water into a basin and began to wash the feet of the disciples and wipe them off with the towel wrapped around him” (John 13:4-5). 

The Altar

“Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother or sister has something against you,  leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to them; then come and offer your gift” (Matthew 5:23-24).

The Gate

“Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it.  But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it” (Matthew 7:11-14).

Haftarah – (Old Testament Readings)

Isaiah 37:15-16

B’rit Chadashah (New Testament Readings)

Hebrews 8:1-6

Hebrews 9:23-24

Hebrews 10:1

Midrash T’rumah:  The Shelter of His Wings

Discuss the Psalms that talk about the ‘shelter of Elohim’s wings’ in reference to the ‘mercy seat’ between the wings of the k’ruvim on the Ark cover (Psalm 17:8, 36:8, 57:2, 63:8, and 91:4.

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